The Dassault company was founded straight after the war by Marcel Dassault. He had been born Marcel Bloch, adopted the nom de guerre of Dassault (some sources say it was his brother who was actually given this name) while in the French Resistance (for which he was sent to Buchenwald Concentration Camp, being liberated in March 1945), and then took on this name officially.
Proceeding at first without any government aid, in 1947 he started work on a jet fighter - the Ouragan. A contract from the government for three prototypes followed, and the aircraft first flew in February 1949.
The French government eventually ordered 350 Ouragans, and they were first delivered in 1952, replacing the De Havilland Vampire. These Ouragans were themselves phased out from early 1955 (until 1961) in favor of the Mystere IV. (the straight-winged Ouragan was the first French jet fighter to attain production).
Photo courtesy of Tony Oliver