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Can I invoke the standard statement which used to be used for freeware ;

You are, of course, welcome to consult and make use of my pages at will. However, if you have found them useful in any appreciable way, please consider sending a small disbursement (even something as small as 1 Euro/Pound/Dollar/etc. would be received with appreciation).

B. Daugherty, 31 MH, Portsmouth PO5 3JG, Britain.

Manned Spaceflight


Spaceflight itself started on 4. October 1957 with Sputnik, a spherical satellite of diameter 58 cm and weight 83.6 kg. Its perigee was 215 km and apogee 939 km. It burned up in the atmosphere about 3 months later, but before then Sputnik 2 was launched carrying Laika the dog.

cosmic rays

without gravity

USSR Space Stations

From April 1971, several Salyut stations were launched. These were 15m long and, and with a maximum diameter of 4m. They had a circular orbit at a height of 350 km.

Mir was a modified form of Salyut, with six docking ports.

Crab Nebula

Big Red Spot on Jupiter